Branch of Philosophy


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What Is Ethics?

Feelosofi –  Ethics is the study of what is considered good or bad in human behavior and actions. It is a scientific discipline that considers the moral principles, values, and norms that govern the actions of individuals and society. Ethics helps us understand how we should act, what is considered right or wrong, and how we should behave towards other people and our environment.

Ethics involves consideration of diverse moral issues, such as human rights, justice, goodness, and responsibility. It also includes various schools of ethical thought, including consequentialist ethics, deontological ethics, and values ​​ethics. Ethics plays an important role in shaping social norms, laws and professional ethics in various fields of life, such as medicine, business and government.


Moral Realism And Moral Anti-Realism

In ethical philosophy, there are two main concepts that discuss the nature of moral values ​​and human ethical obligations, namely moral realism and moral anti-realism.

  1. Moral Realism : Moral realism is the view that there is a moral reality that is objective and independent of individual views or beliefs. This means that moral values ​​such as “good” and “bad” exist outside human thinking and can be found in reality. Moral realists believe that there are truly objective moral standards, which can be the basis for ethical judgments One well-known theory of moral realism is moral absolutist ethics, which claims that there are absolute moral truths, and certain actions are always right or always wrong, no matter the context or situation.
  2. Moral Anti-Realism : Moral anti-realism, on the other hand, holds that moral values ​​have no objective, independent existence. According to this view, moral values ​​are simply social constructs or individual views, and there is no “moral vehicle” in the real world. Moral anti-realists often claim that ethical values ​​are subjective or depend on culture, religion, or individual views. Some forms of moral anti-realism include ethical relativism , which holds that moral values ​​vary based on culture or individual views, and ethical subjectivism, which holds that each person has completely subjective moral views.

In discussions of ethics, moral realism and moral anti-realism are two opposing approaches to answering questions such as whether there are objective moral truths or whether all moral values ​​are social constructs. The debate between these two views has been ongoing for many years and continues to be the subject of research and debate in ethical philosophy .

Descriptive Ethics

Descriptive ethics in ethical philosophy is a branch of ethics that focuses more on the description and understanding of how people and societies actually behave from a moral point of view. This differs from normative ethics which seeks to determine how people should behave based on certain ethical principles.

Descriptive ethics seeks to answer questions about how people understand, deal with, and make moral decisions in everyday life. It involves scientific research and analysis of human behavior related to moral issues. Descriptive ethics attempts to explain moral phenomena objectively and looks at how factors such as culture, religion, social norms, and psychology influence individuals’ ethical choices.

Examples of research in descriptive ethics may include studies of how people react to moral dilemmas, how they make ethical decisions, and how moral values ​​change over time. Through this research, philosophers and social scientists seek to gain a better understanding of ethical practices in society.

Descriptive ethics serves as the basis for normative ethics, because a better understanding of how people actually behave morally can help in the development of ethical theories that are more relevant and based on real experience. It also provides important insights into how moral norms and values ​​develop and change in society over time.

Applied Ethics

Applied Ethics is a branch of ethical philosophy that focuses on the application of ethical principles and moral values ​​in the context of everyday life as well as in various professions and areas of life. The goal is to provide guidance and an ethical framework for individuals, organizations, and society in dealing with complex moral situations.

Some examples of applied ethics fields include:

  1. Medical Ethics : Considers ethical issues in the practice of medicine and health care, such as patient rights, euthanasia, and allocation of medical resources.
  2. Business Ethics : Study of moral actions in a business context, including corporate social responsibility, advertising ethics, and ethical corporate actions.
  3. Environmental Ethics : Analyze ethical responsibilities in environmental protection, natural resource conservation, and the impact of climate change.
  4. Technology Ethics : Explores moral issues surrounding technology and innovation, such as online privacy, the ethics of artificial intelligence, and the ethics of data use.
  5. Legal Ethics : Considering ethical aspects in lawmaking, punishment, and the justice system.
  6. Journalism Ethics : Study the ethical principles involved in the work of journalists, such as truth, objectivity, and the right to privacy.
  7. Educational Ethics : Assessing moral values ​​in education, such as character learning, academic integrity, and teacher-student relationships.
  8. Political Ethics : Considering ethical issues in political decision making and government action, such as social justice and human rights.

Applied ethics provides very important guidance for individuals and organizations in dealing with ethical conflicts and ensuring that decisions taken take into account moral values ​​and ethical principles. It also helps in establishing ethical norms in various areas of life and promotes more ethical behavior in society.

Normative Ethics

Normative ethics in ethical philosophy is a branch that focuses on creating rules, principles and moral guidelines that govern human actions. It is a type of ethics that aims to answer questions about what should be done and how humans should behave from a moral point of view. Normative ethics attempts to establish ethical standards that can guide individuals and society in making moral decisions.

In normative ethics, there are several theories or approaches that attempt to explain the basics of morality and identify ethical principles that can guide human action. Some well-known normative ethical theories include:

  1. Deontology : This theory claims that actions have intrinsic value, meaning there are moral rules that must be followed regardless of the consequences. One well-known form of deontology is Kantian ethics developed by Immanuel Kant .
  2. Consequentialism : This theory assumes that morality is closely related to the consequences of actions. An action is considered right if it produces good consequences or wrong if it produces bad consequences. Utilitarianism is a well-known example of consequentialism.
  3. Virtue Ethics : This approach focuses on developing good character and moral traits. Virtue ethics emphasizes the importance of being an individual who possesses qualities such as wisdom, courage, and integrity.
  4. Religious Ethics : Several ethical theories based on religious beliefs and religious teachings as the basis of ethics. Religious beliefs play a central role in determining what is right and wrong.

Normative ethics helps in establishing ethical guidelines that can be used as a basis for making moral decisions. It also helps in understanding the basics of morality and developing a consistent value system in society. Despite differences in normative ethical theories, all of these theories attempt to answer basic questions in ethics, namely how we should behave and what is considered right or wrong in our actions.


What is ethics?

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with questions of morality and the principles that govern human behavior. It explores concepts of right and wrong, good and bad, and the principles that guide our moral decisions.

What are the main branches of ethics?

Ethics encompasses several subfields, including normative ethics (concerned with defining what is morally right or wrong), metaethics (examining the nature of moral statements and their meaning), and applied ethics (addressing specific ethical issues in fields like medical ethics, environmental ethics, and business ethics).

How do we determine what is morally right or wrong?

Determining what is morally right or wrong is a fundamental question in ethics. Various ethical theories, such as utilitarianism (maximizing overall happiness), deontology (following moral rules and duties), and virtue ethics (cultivating moral virtues), provide different approaches to making moral judgments.

Can ethical principles be universal, or are they relative to culture and context?

Ethical relativism is a topic of debate in ethics. Some argue that ethical principles are universal and apply to all cultures, while others believe that moral values are culturally or contextually relative, meaning they can vary from one society or situation to another.

How can we address ethical dilemmas and conflicts?

Ethical dilemmas often involve conflicting moral principles or values. Ethical decision-making frameworks, such as the ethical triangle (considering consequences, duties, and virtues), can help individuals and organizations navigate complex ethical situations and make morally sound choices.


In conclusion, ethics is a philosophical discipline that explores the fundamental principles that guide human behavior and moral decision-making. It seeks to provide a framework for distinguishing right from wrong, good from bad, and just from unjust actions. Ethical inquiry encompasses a range of topics, from the nature of morality itself to the development of normative ethical theories that provide guidelines for ethical behavior.

Ethical questions are complex and often require careful consideration of various ethical theories, including utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and others. These theories offer different perspectives on how to approach moral dilemmas and conflicts, allowing individuals and societies to navigate the challenging terrain of ethics.

One of the ongoing debates in ethics revolves around the universality of ethical principles versus their cultural and contextual relativity. This debate highlights the dynamic and evolving nature of ethical discussions, as they adapt to the diversity of human cultures and perspectives.

Ultimately, ethics is not just an abstract philosophical endeavor; it has practical applications in various fields, such as medicine, business, and environmental policy, where ethical considerations shape the decisions and actions of individuals and organizations. By engaging with ethical questions, we strive to create a more just, compassionate, and responsible world, where moral principles guide our interactions and decisions. Ethics is an essential and ever-evolving part of human civilization, serving as a moral compass that helps us navigate the complexities of our ethical lives.


  • Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals ” by Immanuel Kant (1785)
  • ” Utilitarianism ” by John Stuart Mill (1863)
  • “ An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation ” by Jeremy Bentham (1789)
  • “ The Virtue of Selfishness ” by Ayn Rand (1964)
  • “ After Virtue ” by Alasdair MacIntyre (1981)
  • “ The Ethics of Ambiguity ” by Simone de Beauvoir (1947)
  • “ The Nicomachean Ethics ” by AC MacIntyre (2009)
  • “ Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong ” by JL Mackie (1977)

Video Recommendations

Raymond Kelvin Nando, "Ethics," Feelosofi, 31 October 2023,
Raymond Kelvin Nando
Writer, Researcher, & Philosophy Enthusiast