Feelosofi – Externalism is a philosophical concept that has relevance in various scientific disciplines, especially in philosophy, epistemology and psychology. Basically, externalism is a view that emphasizes the role of external factors, outside an individual’s thinking or awareness, in determining an individual’s knowledge, wisdom, or even identity.
In epistemology, externalism argues that external factors such as the existence of empirical evidence that supports a belief or an individual’s access to external sources of knowledge have a key role in determining the truth or validity of knowledge. That is, to understand whether someone has knowledge about a proposition, it is necessary to consider factors outside the individual’s thinking or awareness, such as the individual’s relationship with his environment.
Meanwhile in psychology, externalism relates to the view that individual behavior is not only influenced by internal factors such as motivation or mental state, but also by external factors such as environmental stimuli. This means that explanations of human behavior must take into account the influence of external factors in a given situation.
Overall, externalism is a concept that considers the complex interactions between individuals and their environment, and its role in shaping an individual’s knowledge, behavior, and even identity. An understanding of externalism has a significant impact on understanding how we respond to the world around us and how we shape our knowledge and experiences as humans.
History Of The Development Of Externalism
The history of the development of externalism includes the evolution of philosophical and scientific thought involving the role of external factors in determining individual knowledge and behavior. The early development of externalism can be traced to 17th century philosophy, especially to the empiricist views of John Locke, who emphasized the importance of sensory experience and external observation in understanding the world. This empirical thinking became the basis for subsequent developments in epistemology.
In the 20th century, epistemic externalism experienced significant revitalization, especially with contributions from epistemologists such as Gettier and Kripke. They explore epistemic aspects that depend not only on internal mental states, but also on the interrelation of external factors such as social conditions, history, and unknown circumstances. Gettier’s “three-factor” theory, for example, highlights that knowledge requires in addition to truth and belief, a third factor related to external factors such as adequate reasoning.
Furthermore, in psychology, externalism has also experienced significant development. Behavioral paradigms that emerged in the early 20th century emphasized the importance of external factors, such as stimuli and responses, in explaining individual behavior. Over time, psychological theories such as social learning theory and environmental psychology strengthened this view.
Thus, the historical development of externalism reflects changes in the way we understand the role of external factors in shaping individual knowledge, behavior, and identity. Through evolution in philosophy and science, externalism has become an important element in the understanding of the complex interactions between individuals and their environments, bringing valuable contributions in a variety of scientific disciplines.
Externalist figures include a number of individuals who have made valuable contributions in developing and formulating externalist views in various scientific disciplines. In the context of epistemology , one of the leading figures is Hilary Putnam, who is known for his “three factor” theory which highlights the role of external factors in knowledge. Gettier’s concept, developed by Edmund Gettier, shook up traditional understandings of knowledge and provided an important foundation for externalist thinking. Meanwhile, Saul Kripke developed the concept of rough access to explain how individuals can have knowledge without awareness of the justification of their beliefs.
In the field of psychology, BF Skinner is a figure who created externalism in the behavioral paradigm. Skinner emphasized the importance of external factors, such as stimuli and environmental conditions, in shaping individual behavior. Meanwhile, Albert Bandura is known for his social learning theory which emphasizes the role of observation and social interaction in shaping behavior.
In addition, in the social sciences and humanities, Michel Foucault is an important figure of externalism who highlights how structures of power and knowledge in the social environment influence individuals. This theory of externalism helps us understand how external factors such as social norms and institutions influence human identity and behavior.
Types Of Externalism
There are several types of externalism which have various applications and implications in various fields, including epistemic externalism, psychological externalism, and social externalism.
First, epistemic externalism refers to a view that emphasizes the importance of external factors in determining the truth or validity of knowledge. One well-known type of epistemic externalism is external reliabilism, which focuses on the reliability of external sources of knowledge, such as sensory experience or the testimony of others, in determining the truth of a belief. This epistemic externalism suggests that factors outside individual thinking, such as the existence of reliable sources of knowledge, have a central role in assessing the truth of knowledge.
Second, psychological externalism focuses on the role of external factors in shaping individual behavior. The behavioral theory underlying externalism emphasizes that the environment and external stimuli have a significant influence in shaping individual responses and actions. In this context, the individual is considered as the product of a complex interaction between external factors and more limited internal mental processes.
Third, social externalism refers to the recognition of the influence of external factors in shaping an individual’s identity and social behavior. This theory highlights that social norms, culture, power structures, and social institutions play an important role in determining how individuals understand themselves and interact with society. Thus, an individual’s social identity is not only the result of internal processes, but is also influenced by external factors in their social environment.
Overall, these types of externalism demonstrate the complexity of interactions between individuals and external factors in shaping knowledge, behavior, and identity.
Externalism is a concept that emphasizes the role of external factors in various aspects of individual life, including in epistemology , psychology, and social sciences. Epistemic externalism highlights that the truth of knowledge depends on external factors such as reliable sources of knowledge. Psychological externalism underscores the influence of the external environment in shaping individual behavior. Meanwhile, social externalism recognizes that individual social identities and behavior are influenced by social norms, culture and power structures.
In this way, an understanding of externalism helps us see the complex interactions between individuals and external factors that shape our knowledge, behavior, and identity. This concept provides important insights into a variety of disciplines, from philosophy to the social sciences, so that we can more deeply understand the role of external factors in shaping the world we live in.
What Is Externalism?
Externalism is a framework of thought that emphasizes the role of external factors, outside an individual’s thinking or awareness, in determining an individual’s knowledge, behavior or identity. This concept is applied in various disciplines, such as epistemology , psychology, and social science, to understand how factors external to the individual play a role in shaping humans’ experiences and interactions with their environment.
How Is Externalism Different From Internalism?
The main difference between externalism and internalism lies in their focus. Internalism emphasizes internal factors such as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, or motivations, while externalism highlights the role of external factors such as environmental influences, social circumstances, or external sources of knowledge in influencing individuals.
How Does Externalism Affect Our View Of Knowledge?
Epistemic externalism changes the way we understand knowledge by emphasizing that knowledge can depend on external factors such as empirical evidence , access to external sources of knowledge, and the reliability of those sources. Thus, knowledge is not only related to individual beliefs, but also to the external factors that support them.
What Is The Impact Of Externalism In The Context Of Behavioral Psychology?
Externalism in behavioral psychology emphasizes the influence of external factors such as stimuli and environmental conditions in shaping individual behavior. This shows that human behavior is influenced by the environment and interactions with external factors, not just by internal mental processes.
How Does Externalism Affect The Concept Of Social Identity?
The concept of social externalism highlights that an individual’s social identity is influenced by external factors, such as social norms, culture, and power structures in society. This means that human identity is not only the result of internal thinking, but is also influenced by the social environment and external factors that influence the way individuals understand themselves in a social context.
- “ Externalism and Skepticism ” – Susana Nuccetelli (2003)
- “ Epistemic Angst: Radical Skepticism and the Groundlessness of Our Believing ” – Duncan Pritchard (2015)
- “ Externalism: Putting Mind and World Back Together Again ” – Mark Rowlands (2003)
- “ Social Externalism and Conceptual Projects ” – Kirk Ludwig (2005)
- “ Relevant Alternatives and the Content of Knowledge ” – John Hawthorne (2004)