Friedrich Nietzsche

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Biography Of Friedrich Nietzsche

Feelosofi –  Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher who lived in the 19th century and was known for his controversial thoughts on morality, religion and human nature. Nietzsche was born on October 15, 1844, in Röcken, Prussia. He was the son of a Lutheran pastor, and at first, Nietzsche was expected to follow in his father’s religious footsteps. However, as time went on, Nietzsche became increasingly critical of Christian religion and morality.

Nietzsche’s education was impressive; he studied theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn and later at the University of Leipzig. After that, he obtained a professorship at the University of Basel, Switzerland, at a very young age. However, in 1879, Nietzsche resigned from his post for health reasons.

During his life, Nietzsche often experienced health problems, including mental disorders. The last few years of his life were spent in pain and confusion. In 1889, Nietzsche experienced madness that made him unable to pursue his work as a writer. He was watched over by his mother until his death on August 25, 1900.

One of his most famous works is “ Also sprach Zarathustra ” or “Thus Spoke Zaratustra,” in which he introduced the concept of the Übermensch (usually translated as “ Superman ” or “ Overman ”). Nietzsche is also known for his iconic phrase “God is dead,” which reflects his views on Christianity in modern society.

Although Nietzsche died in isolation and was considered controversial in his day, his work became highly influential in the history of philosophy . Nietzsche’s thinking is still the subject of debate and in-depth reflection on various important issues in philosophy and culture to this day, making him one of the most important philosophers in the history of human thought.

Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thoughts

God Is Dead

The statement “God is dead” is one of the most controversial and famous statements from Friedrich Nietzsche’s thought. This phrase first appeared in his work entitled “ Die fröhliche Wissenschaft ” (The Joyful Science) in 1882. This statement has deep and broad connotations, and is often misunderstood.

In Nietzsche’s context, “God is dead” should not be taken literally as the death of God as a divine entity. Instead, Nietzsche used this phrase symbolically to describe fundamental changes in human thought and society. He considers that belief in God and traditional Christian morality have weakened him and no longer hold a strong influence in the modern world.

Nietzsche saw that with the decline of belief in Christian religion and morality, modern society was at a point where people had to search for new values ​​and meaning in their lives. He worried that the loss of faith in God would produce a crisis of values ​​in which humans might tend to become nihilists , that is, lose faith in value and meaning.

Therefore, when Nietzsche said “God is dead,” he was referring to the awakening of the great challenge for humans to create their own values, overcome conventional morality, and search for meaning in a world no longer dependent on religion. In many ways, this statement illustrates Nietzsche’s call for individuals to take full responsibility for their own lives and morality.

Although the statement “God is dead” is often quoted, it is important to understand it in the context of Nietzsche’s thought and what he meant. He wants to encourage humans to seek meaning and value in an increasingly secular life, rather than falling into nihilism .

Ubermensch (Superman)

Übermensch , or often translated as “ Superman ” in English, is one of the most famous concepts in Friedrich Nietzsche’s thought. This concept reflects Nietzsche’s view of individuals who are able to transcend social norms and conventional morality to achieve their highest potential. In simpler language, an Übermensch is a person who is capable of being stronger, freer and more creative than the majority of humans.

Nietzsche introduced the concept of the Übermensch in his famous work, “ Also sprach Zarathustra ” or “Thus Spoke Zaratustra.” In this work, Nietzsche views humans as creatures trapped in traditional morality, especially Christian morality, which he views as limiting individual potential. He proposed that humans should overcome this morality and create their own values.

An Übermensch is an individual who has the ability to exceed social conventions and create new values ​​that emerge from the will to power . Übermensch are not bound by the norms imposed by society and dare to live according to their own views and goals.

Nietzsche’s understanding of the Übermensch is often interpreted as a call for individuals to overcome social conformity, conventional morality, and norms that limit their personal development. This concept has influenced existentialist thinkers and contemporary philosophers, and continues to be the subject of debate and research in the world of philosophy and culture.

At its core, the Übermensch is Nietzsche’s understanding of individuals who are able to achieve their true potential by overcoming the social conventions and morality that limit them, creating their own values, and living according to their own will. This concept remains an important part of modern philosophical thought .

Will To Power

The will to power is a central concept in Friedrich Nietzsche’s thinking. In its original language, ” the will to power ” this concept refers to the basic inner urge in humans to seek power, influence, and domination over themselves and their surrounding environment. Nietzsche considered the will to power to be one of the strongest motives that drives human action.

Nietzsche developed this idea in his various works, and he saw the will to power as a fundamental force that can move humans toward liberation or oppression. He argues that strong individuals will use their will to power to create their own values ​​and transcend social norms. On the other hand, individuals who are weak or constrained by traditional morality will tend to experience oppression by other forces.

The will to power is also closely related to the concept of Übermensch (Superman). Nietzsche believed that individuals who become Übermensch are those who are able to master their will to power and use it to achieve their highest potential. Übermensch create their own values ​​and are not bound by social norms that inhibit creativity and self-expression.

Nietzsche’s understanding of the will to power teaches that humans have great potential to achieve extraordinary achievements when they are able to recognize and direct their inner drives. However, it can also be used for destructive purposes if not managed wisely.

At its core, the will to power is Nietzsche’s understanding of the fundamental drive in humans to seek power and influence, which can be a source of creativity and liberation, or conversely, oppression and degradation, depending on how that drive is directed and managed. This concept is one of the key elements in Nietzsche’s thinking about human nature and morality.

Slave Morality Vs Master Morality

Friedrich Nietzsche was a philosopher who formulated the difference between two types of morality in his thinking: slave morality and master morality . These different concepts of morality illustrate Nietzsche’s view of the dynamics of moral values ​​in society.

  • Slave Morality : Slave morality emerged, according to Nietzsche, from their weak and marginalized social condition. This morality develops when oppressed groups or individuals try to balance and avenge the power of those who are dominant. Slave morality valued such virtues as humility, patience, helplessness, and mercy. A clear example is Christian morality, in which self-pervasion, love, and forgiveness are emphasized. This morality aims to protect weak individuals and suppress expressions of physical force or direct dominance.
  • Master Morality : In contrast, master morality arises from a dominant and powerful social position. This morality pursues values ​​such as power, ambition, and glory. Master morality emphasizes the justification of power and achievement. Nietzsche considered this morality to be a more original morality, before slave morality emerged as a reaction to oppression. Master morality glorifies success, assertiveness, and self-reliance.

Nietzsche views this difference as a reflection of the conflict in human history between groups who have power and groups who are oppressed. This view was heavily influenced by his experience with Christianity which emphasized slave morality. Nietzsche criticized slave morality because he saw it as a form of oppression for individuals who had greater potential and as an obstacle to the individual’s ability to achieve excellence.

However, Nietzsche does not claim that slave morality or master morality is better or worse; he focuses more on understanding these two types of morality and how they affect society and individuals. This concept became a key element in Nietzsche’s thinking about human nature and how morality influences social dynamics and values.

The Return Of The Immortal

The concept of “eternal return” ( Ewige Wiederkunft ) is one of the main ideas in Friedrich Nietzsche’s thought. This is the idea of ​​repeatability, where all moments in history and human life will continue to repeat themselves endlessly. Nietzsche developed this concept in his famous work, “ Also sprach Zarathustra ” or “Thus Spoke Zaratustra.”

According to Nietzsche, the idea of ​​eternal return is a challenge for humans to consider the way they live and take action in everyday life. He supports the idea that if we are to live the same moment again, without stopping, then our current actions and decisions must be truly valuable and meaningful.

For Nietzsche, this idea was a way to help humans escape from slave morality and social conventions that might limit their self-expression and possibilities. It reminds individuals to live with freedom and creativity, take risks, and take control of their own lives.

Although the concept of “eternal return” is very confusing and controversial, Nietzsche considered it a test for humans to live a meaningful and courageous life. In many ways, this concept encourages us to reflect on how we live and whether our current actions truly reflect the values ​​that are most important to us.

There Is No Absolute Truth

The concept of “no absolute truth” is one of the core thoughts of postmodern philosophers and is especially reflected in the views of Friedrich Nietzsche and the thoughts of subsequent philosophers. This idea reflects the view that there is no truly absolute or objective truth that applies to all contexts and all people.

This view emerged as a reaction to traditional philosophical views which often claim the existence of absolute truth that can be found through reason or certain methods. Nietzsche, for example, argued that what is often considered truth is simply a subjective interpretation influenced by factors such as culture, language, and personal experience.

This thinking has influenced postmodernism, which emphasizes plurality, relativism , and diversity in worldviews. In this context, each individual or group may have their own unique perspective and different truths that may apply to them.

However, it is important to note that this view has also sparked debate and criticism. Some argue that while there are no absolute truths in the strict sense, there is still agreement on basic values ​​such as human rights or ethical norms that can be considered more universal truths.

Overall, the concept of “no absolute truth” reflects the uncertainty and complexity in human attempts to understand the world and reality. It is the subject of deep debate in the worlds of philosophy , ethics, and science, and remains a focus of attention in various fields of study.

Apollonian And Dionysian

The Apollonian and Dionysian concepts are two key elements in Friedrich Nietzsche’s thought that appear in his work ” The Birth of Tragedy “. Nietzsche used this concept to explain two basic tendencies in art, culture, and human life.

  • Apollonian : Apollonian refers to tendencies that represent the controlled, rational, and harmonious aspects of human life. The name is taken from the Greek god Apollo, who symbolizes intelligence, wisdom, and order. Apollonian elements describe the human desire to create structure, aesthetics , and order in art and culture. This includes things like logic , order, and cohesion in art, as in fine art or classical literature.
  • Dionysian : The Dionysian, on the other hand, symbolizes the wilder, emotional, and intuitive tendencies in human life. The name is taken from the Greek god Dionysus, who symbolizes passion, freedom, and joy. Dionysian elements reflect the human desire for emotional expression, freedom from constraints, and intense experiences. It is associated with more expressive arts and culture, such as intense music and dance, which arouse feelings and passions.

Nietzsche saw that the harmonious combination of Apollonian and Dionysian elements in art and culture created the most powerful and profound works of art and human experiences. For example, in the art of classical Greek tragedy, Apollonian elements can be found in the structure of the script and characters, while Dionysian elements are reflected in the emotions and dramatic tension.

Apollonian and Dionysian concepts also describe the dynamics in human life. Apollonian tendencies represent the attempt to achieve control and order in everyday life, while Dionysian tendencies represent the drive for emotional outbursts, passion, and excitement. Nietzsche saw that balance between these two tendencies was the key to achieving a meaningful and meaningful life.

Transvaluation Of Values

The concept of transvaluation of values ​​is one of the main ideas in Friedrich Nietzsche’s thinking, especially in his work ” The Genealogy of Morals “. Value transvaluation, or value retranslation, is a process in which individuals or societies review and change existing value systems.

Nietzsche argued that the value system that exists in society is often influenced by slave morality which emphasizes values ​​such as humility, patience and mercy. He considers that this value system is considered “good values” by conventional society.

Transvaluation of values, according to Nietzsche, is an attempt to replace the value system with a new one that is more in line with the desire and will to power . In this case, Nietzsche proposed that strong and creative individuals must dare to question and doubt existing moral norms and create their own values.

Value transvaluation involves understanding that moral values ​​are not absolute and can change according to individual or group circumstances and perspectives. It is an act of freeing oneself from slave morality that may limit one’s potential and self-expression. For Nietzsche, this was part of the process of freeing oneself from oppression and developing true creative potential.

However, it is important to remember that the concept of value transvaluation is also controversial, and many argue that replacing moral values ​​with new ones can have complex social and ethical consequences. Nietzsche’s thoughts on the transvaluation of values ​​sparked various interpretations and debates in the history of philosophy , and are still the subject of deep attention in contemporary philosophical and ethical thought.


The concept of hermeneutics is related to Friedrich Nietzsche’s thought in several important ways:

  • Understanding Subjectivity : Nietzsche places great emphasis on subjectivity in thinking and interpretation. Hermeneutics also understands subjective understanding as an important component in the interpretation process. Nietzsche views that individuals have personal perspectives and experiences that influence the way they interpret the world. In this case, hermeneutics reinforces Nietzsche’s ideas about the importance of understanding subjective context in the interpretation of texts and social phenomena.
  • Value Interpretation : Nietzsche’s concept of value transvaluation, which involves the reinterpretation and change of moral values, has similarities to the hermeneutic approach in understanding the interpretation of values ​​in culture and society. Hermeneutics helps understand how moral, social, and cultural values ​​can change and develop over time.
  • Criticism of Interpretation : Nietzsche often criticized conventional interpretation and understanding, especially in moral and religious contexts. He encourages people to question existing interpretations and to have the courage to face new understandings. Hermeneutics, in this sense, reflects the spirit of digging deeper into the meaning that may be hidden behind a text or phenomenon.
  • The Importance of Context : Just as Nietzsche emphasized the importance of context in understanding, hermeneutics views context as an important element in the process of interpretation. Both recognize that meaning cannot be understood without considering the cultural background, history, and social context in which the text or phenomenon appears.

In many ways, hermeneutics and Nietzsche’s thought complement each other in terms of understanding, interpretation and interpretation. They help us reflect on how we understand texts, culture, and social phenomena, and how important subjectivity, context, and understanding are in that process.

Friedrich Nietzsche’s Works

  • “ Also sprach Zarathustra ” (1883-1885)
  • “ Jenseits von Gut und Böse ” (1886)
  • “ Genealogie der Moral ” (1887)
  • “ Ecce Homo ” (1888)
  • “ Der Wille zur Macht ” (1901, after his death)
  • “ Der Antichrist ” (1888)
  • “ Morgenröte ” (1881)
  • “ Die fröhliche Wissenschaft ” (1882)
  • “ Zur Genealogie der Moral ” (1887)
  • “ Die Geburt der Tragödie ” (1872)


Friedrich Nietzsche was a philosopher who influenced modern philosophical thought and culture. His works, written in the 19th century, explore a variety of controversial concepts and ideas. Some of his most famous works include “ Also sprach Zarathustra ,” “ Genealogie der Moral ,” and “ Der Antichrist .”

Some key concepts in Nietzsche’s thought include the Übermensch ( Superman ), transvaluation of values, Apollonian and Dionysian, the will to power, and the contrast between slave morality and master morality. He is also known for his provocative statement, “God is dead,” which reflects his views on Christianity in modern society.

His works highlight the importance of interpretation, understanding context, and subjectivity in human thought. Nietzsche views that individuals must dare to doubt conventional values ​​and create their own values ​​to achieve their true potential.

Nietzsche’s thinking remains relevant in philosophical and cultural thought today and continues to be the subject of in-depth research and debate. His contribution to redefining ideas of morality, power, and creativity remains an important reflection in human thought.


Who Is Friedrich Nietzsche?

Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher who lived in the 19th century. He is known for his controversial thoughts on morality, religion and individual freedom. Nietzsche also coined concepts such as Übermensch ( Superman ) and transvaluation of values.

What Is The Concept Of Übermensch (Superman) In Nietzsche’s Thought?

The concept of the Übermensch is the idea of ​​individuals who are able to transcend social norms and conventional morality to achieve their highest potential. Nietzsche views the Übermensch as individuals who have the ability to create their own values ​​and live according to their own will.

What Is Meant By “God Is Dead” In Nietzsche’s Thought?

The statement “God is dead” is symbolic to describe fundamental changes in human thinking and society. Nietzsche considered that with the decline of belief in Christian religion and morality, modern society was at a point where they had to search for new values ​​and meaning in their lives.

What Is Meant By Value Transvaluation In Nietzsche’s Thought?

The statement “God is dead” is symbolic to describe fundamental changes in human thinking and society. Nietzsche considered that with the decline of belief in Christian religion and morality, modern society was at a point where they had to search for new values ​​and meaning in their lives.

How Did Nietzsche’s Thought Influence Modern Philosophy And Culture?

Nietzsche’s thought influenced the development of modern philosophical and cultural thought by challenging conventional values, morality and religion. He also introduced new concepts that are still the subject of debate and research in contemporary philosophy . Nietzsche inspired existentialist thinkers , postmodern philosophers, and modern cultural observers.


  • “ Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography ” by Rüdiger Safranski (2002).
  • “Nietzsche: The Man and his Philosophy ” by RJ Hollingdale (1965).
  • “ Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist ” by Walter Kaufmann (1950).
  • “ Nietzsche: A Very Short Introduction ” by Michael Tanner (2001).
  • “ Nietzsche: The Ethics of an Immoralist ” by Peter Berkowitz (1995).
  • “ Nietzsche: A Guide for the Perplexed ” by R. Kevin Hill (2007).
  • “ The Nietzsche Reader ” by Keith Ansell Pearson and Duncan Large (2006).
  • “ Nietzsche: His Philosophy of Contradictions and the Contradictions of His Philosophy ” by Stanley Rosen (2010).
  • “ The Nietzsche Dictionary ” by Douglas Burnham and Tom Bailey (2013).

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