Martin Heidegger Biography
Feelosofi – Martin Heidegger, a German philosopher, was born on September 26 1889 in Messkirch, a small town in southern Germany. Heidegger is one of the most influential figures in the history of 20th century philosophy. He developed an approach to philosophy known as “existentialist” that greatly influenced a variety of fields, including philosophy, literature, and psychology.
Heidegger studied theology before turning to philosophy . In 1927, he released his famous book, “ Being and Time ” (“ Sein und Zeit ” in German). This book is his most famous work and sparked deep philosophical debate. In this book, he explores the concepts of human existence, time, and meaning in the context of existence. Heidegger is known for developing the idea of “ Dasein ,” which refers to the unique human existence and understanding of the world.
However, during the period between World War I and World War II, Heidegger became involved in Nazi politics and became a member of the Nazi party. Although this has been the subject of great controversy, it cannot be ignored in any historical assessment of his life. After World War II, he lost his academic position and spent time in exile before finally returning to academia.
Martin Heidegger died on 26 May 1976 in Freiburg, Germany. His philosophical legacy remains relevant in the world of contemporary philosophy , and his work continues to be the subject of in-depth study in the understanding of human existence, time, and meaning. Although his political controversies remain a questionable aspect of his history, his contributions to philosophy remain highly significant.
Martin Heidegger’s Thoughts
Dasein is a very important concept in Martin Heidegger’s thought that he developed in his famous book, “ Sein und Zeit ” ( Being and Time ). The concept of Dasein is Heidegger’s way of explaining human existence in a philosophical context. The word “Dasein” itself is a German term that can be translated as “Being-there” or “Being-in-the-world.”
In the concept of Dasein, Heidegger emphasizes the importance of understanding humans as unique and complex entities, different from other objects in the world. Dasein is an active subject that always “is” in the world, and this means that humans exist not only as objects that can be explained or analyzed, but also as subjects who are involved in the world and understand the meaning of their existence.
Dasein has several key characteristics:
- Involvement in the World: Humans do not just exist passively, but they are involved in the world. They engage in social relationships, interact with physical objects, and have experiences that shape their understanding of the world.
- Consciousness: Dasein is a conscious entity. Humans have the ability to reflect, plan for the future, and remember the past. This awareness allows humans to understand themselves and the meaning of their existence.
- Presence in Time: Heidegger places great emphasis on the concept of temporality in Dasein. Humans exist in time, which includes the past, present and future. Dasein confronts the reality of death, which is also part of this temporality and reminds humans of the limitations of their time.
- Authenticity and Inauthenticity: Heidegger distinguishes between authentic and inauthentic states in Dasein. Authenticity refers to an individual’s ability to live according to their true values and potential, whereas inauthenticity is when individuals simply follow social norms or external demands without considering the true meaning of their existence.
Dasein is a concept that allows Heidegger to explain how humans are not only objects in the world, but also active subjects who have awareness, involvement in the world, and responsibility to live life with authenticity. This is the basis of Heidegger’s existential thought and has influenced many aspects of contemporary philosophy .
Weltanschauung is a German term that can be literally translated as “worldview.” This concept has deep meaning in Martin Heidegger’s thought. Weltanschauung refers to a comprehensive framework of understanding or view that an individual or group has about the world, themselves, and the meaning of existence.
This worldview includes an understanding of reality, values, beliefs, norms, and goals in life. In Heidegger’s view, Weltanschauung is a framework that includes our understanding of what exists and how we interact with the world as well as the meaning of our existence.
It is important to remember that Weltanschauung is not something static or fixed, but continues to develop and be shaped by individual experiences over time. A person’s worldview can be influenced by culture, religion, personal experiences, and various other factors.
Heidegger emphasized that we must become aware of our own Weltanschauung , because a deeper understanding of our worldview can help us better understand the meaning of our existence. In Heidegger’s analysis, we need to undergo critical reflection about our worldview, and this involves a deeper understanding of ourselves and how our worldview influences our actions and choices in life.
Existential ontology is a philosophical concept related to the understanding of human existence and meaning in life. Martin Heidegger, a German philosopher , was one of the figures who played a major role in the development of existential ontology.
Existential ontology focuses on fundamental questions regarding human existence. The main focus is on the individual as a being who has self-awareness, the ability to reflect, and the freedom to make choices. The term “existential” in existential ontology emphasizes the existence or existence of unique and individual humans.
This thinking is different from traditional ontology which focuses more on the existence of objects or other entities, such as items or concepts. Existential ontology questions the meaning of life, purpose, and how individuals interact with the world around them.
One of the main concepts in existential ontology is “ Dasein ” used by Heidegger in his famous book, “Being and Time.” Dasein refers to unique human existence, with all its complexity, uncertainty, and ability to give meaning to the world. Heidegger emphasized that we must understand our own existence before we can understand the meaning of other existences.
Existential ontology also explores the concept of time, where time is considered a key element in understanding human existence. Heidegger distinguishes between ontological time, which is a deep dimension of time that influences all human existence, and phenomenological time, which is the everyday experience of time.
In Martin Heidegger’s thinking, the concept of time has a very important role. Heidegger explores the concept of time within the framework of his existential ontology, which attempts to understand human existence and the way we relate to the world.
Heidegger distinguishes between “ontological time” and “phenomenological time.” Ontological time is a deeper and more abstract dimension of time that influences all of human existence. This ontological time is the time that precedes everything, being the basic framework for human existence. In this context, Heidegger said that humans are always in “time,” which means humans are always in the process of becoming.
The phenomenological concept of time, on the other hand, refers to our everyday experiences of time. This is time measured in hours, days, months, and years. Heidegger emphasized how important it is for us to understand this phenomenological time well because a deep understanding of time can help us achieve “authenticity” in our lives.
In “ Being and Time ” Heidegger also explains the concept of “being for death” or “being towards death.” He believes that awareness of death is a very important factor in understanding human existence. When we recognize death as the end of our time, we become more aware of the value of our current time and make more authentic choices.
Heidegger also describes the concepts of “falling” and “resolution” in the context of time. Fallenness refers to those of us who tend to live without reflection, caught up in routines and social expectations. Resolutions, on the other hand, are conscious decisions to live authentically, reflect on the meaning of our existence, and make more meaningful choices.
So, for Martin Heidegger, time is a key element in understanding human existence. This concept of time is one of the main aspects of his existential ontology, which emphasizes human existence as unique creatures, understanding of self and the world, and the importance of living life with authenticity.
Heidegger emphasized that humans are creatures who seek meaning in life. This meaning is not found outside ourselves or in social rules, but must be constructed by individuals in the context of their existence. He argued that the meaning of life comes from our understanding of ourselves, our relationship to the world, and how we interact with reality.
In Heidegger’s thought, meaning is not static; rather, it is a construct that continues to change throughout life. Humans must reflect on their existence, understand their existence, and understand how time plays an important role in forming that meaning. Time, according to Heidegger, influences the way we understand our existence and provides a time frame that forms the basis for the search for meaning.
Heidegger also introduced the concept of “authenticity” in the context of meaning. Authenticity refers to living honestly and in accordance with one’s true existence. This means avoiding imitation, social expectations, and blind adherence to norms that may not suit us. Living authentically allows us to build a deeper and more meaningful meaning in life.
Heidegger introduced the concept of “language as the house of being ” . This means that language is home to human understanding of existence and the world. Language allows us to convey and share meaning, as well as reflect on our experiences. In this case, language is more than just a means of communication; it is also a tool for absorbing meaning in life.
Heidegger emphasized that language plays a key role in how we understand concepts, values, and meaning in our lives. Every culture has a language that reflects their worldview and values. Therefore, language not only expresses people’s thoughts, but also shapes their way of thinking and understanding of reality.
In Heidegger’s thinking, it is important to understand that language can also influence the way we relate to the world and our existence. Language can limit or expand our understanding of reality. Therefore, careful and reflective use of language is important in efforts to achieve a deeper understanding of human existence.
Heidegger also emphasized that language plays an important role in humans’ integration with reality. In other words, language helps us to understand ourselves and the world around us. Therefore, he views that in the careful use of language, humans can achieve a deeper understanding of their existence and the meaning of life.
In conclusion, for Martin Heidegger, language is more than just a means of communication; it is the home of human understanding of existence and the world. Language shapes the way we understand, communicate, and reflect on meaning in life. Therefore, understanding language becomes an important element in our efforts to achieve a deeper understanding of human existence.
Temporality is an important concept in the philosophical thought of Martin Heidegger, a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology and existentialism. This concept of temporality plays a central role in Heidegger’s understanding of human existence and how humans relate to time. In academic and informative language, we can explain the concept of Temporality in Heidegger’s thought as follows:
Temporality is a fundamental characteristic of human existence that refers to the complex relationship between humans and time. Heidegger approached time as more than just a linear dimension measurable by seconds and hours, but as an existential reality that permeates human life.
Heidegger divides Temporality into three main concepts: “ tense of the now ” ( nunc stans ), “ retention ” ( retention ), and “ protention ” ( protention ). These are the basic elements that shape the way humans experience time.
- “ Tense of the Now ” ( Nunc Stans ) : This refers to the present moment in the experience of time. However, Heidegger argued that the present moment is not an instantaneous point in time, but rather an “ongoing now” that reflects the human relationship to experience and presence.
- “ Retention ” : This is the human ability to reflect on the past and retain memories in current experiences. Heidegger argued that human experience is not only limited to the present moment, but also includes memories and previous experiences that shape an individual’s understanding of themselves and the world.
- ” Protention “ : Protention is part of Temporality which involves anticipation or expectations about the future. Humans have the ability to reflect on what is to come, which shapes their hopes, plans and expectations.
Temporality describes how humans live in involvement with time, and this makes humans “spanning creatures” who live between the past, present and future. Heidegger argued that this deeper understanding of time influences the way humans experience their own meaning, identity, and existence.
The Reality Of Death
The Reality of Death is an important concept in the thinking of Martin Heidegger, a German existentialist philosopher known for his works in phenomenological ontology. In Heidegger’s thought, the Reality of Death refers not only to the physical fact of death as the end of life, but also to the existential meaning of death and how understanding death influences the way humans live their lives. The following is a more detailed explanation of the concept of the Reality of Death in Heidegger’s thought:
The Reality of Death in Heidegger’s thinking is about humans’ existential understanding of death as an integral part of their existence. Heidegger argued that humans often avoid or ignore the reality of their death, even though understanding death is the key to understanding the nature of human existence.
Heidegger stated that death is the most individual of existential phenomena, meaning that although all humans face it, each individual experiences it in a unique way. Death is an unavoidable experience and an inseparable part of the human condition.
Humans often tend to live in a state of oblivion about death, living life as if they will always be alive. However, Heidegger invites humans to face the reality of their death as something certain. It is a call to accept death as an inevitable part of human existence.
Understanding death, according to Heidegger, should encourage humans to live their lives more authentically and meaningfully. When people realize the reality of death, they will be more careful in choosing the values, goals and actions they take in their lives. Understanding death also helps humans avoid a life that is shallow or routine without meaning.
In his famous essay entitled “ Being and Time ” ( Sein und Zeit ), Heidegger calls death “the deepest and most personal calling” facing humans. Understanding death is the gateway to understanding human existence more deeply, helping them pursue a more meaningful and authentic life.
Authenticity And Inauthenticity
Authenticity and Inauthenticity are two central concepts in the thinking of Martin Heidegger, a German existentialist philosopher . These two concepts refer to two different ways in which humans face their existence and experience the world. Let us explain in more detail the concepts of Authenticity and Inauthenticity in Heidegger’s thought:
- Authenticity : Authenticity is a state in which individuals face their existence in an honest, responsible and authentic way . In Heidegger’s context, authenticity is closely related to humans’ understanding of themselves, including understanding the reality of death. Authenticity arises when individuals realize the reality of their death and use this understanding to give meaning to their lives. Humans who live in authenticity do not follow social norms or expectations imposed by others. They are not trapped in routine or conformity. Instead, they live a life consistent with their personally chosen values and goals. Authenticity involves the ability to reflect on oneself, make decisions with freedom, and accept responsibility for their actions.
- Inauthenticity : On the other hand , inauthenticity is a state in which an individual lives without a deep understanding of his or her existence. They tend to follow social norms, expectations from others, and conventional orders without personal considerations. Inauthenticity also includes avoiding understanding the reality of death and ignoring it. This can lead to a life that is shallow, meaningless, and without deep reflection about the meaning of life. Humans who live in inauthenticity may feel trapped in daily routines and live as a “closed man,” who loses the ability to reflect. their existence and actions. They live within the order inherited from culture and society without thinking critically about their own choices.
Understanding authenticity and inauthenticity in Heidegger’s thought emphasizes the importance for humans to realize their existence, reflect on the meaning of death, and live according to the values they truly believe in. Authenticity is a call to live authentically and responsibly for personal existence, while inauthenticity is the possibility of falling into a life that is shallow and detached from the meaning of existence. Awareness of this concept can help people live more meaningful and authentic lives in accordance with a deep understanding of themselves.
Sorge is a German term used by Heidegger to refer to a deeper concern with human existence and its role in the world. Sorge is the way humans take care of themselves and the world around them, which includes everyday aspects such as attention to their actions, values, and relationships. The concept of Sorge is an integral part of Heidegger’s analysis of human existence in his famous work, “ Being and Time ” ( Sein und Zeit ).
Sorge consists of three main elements:
- Fürsorge (Concern for Oneself) : This is an element related to human concern for themselves. Humans need to reflect on their existence, including understanding death and the tasks they face in everyday life. This involves introspection and reflection on their values, aspirations and life choices.
- Besorge (Concern for the World) : This section of Sorge focuses on humans’ relationships with the world around them. Humans must pay attention to the physical and social world in which they live. They must consider how the world influences their decisions and actions. This includes attention to the values that exist in society and how these values influence life choices.
- Vorsorge (Concern for the Future) : Concern for the future is the third element of Sorge . Humans need to reflect on long-term plans, aspirations and goals. They must understand that current actions will affect the future and that death is a part of human reality that must be considered in planning life.
Sorge is about contemplating how humans take care of themselves and the world, and how they live their existence mindfully. A deep understanding of Sorge is important for understanding Heidegger’s concepts of authenticity and inauthenticity, where authenticity refers to authentic concern and self-understanding, while inauthenticity relates to ignorance or neglect of Sorge . By contemplating Sorge , humans can direct their lives toward greater meaning and authenticity.
Martin Heidegger’s Work
- “ Being and Time ” ( Sein und Zeit ) – 1927
- “ What Is Metaphysics? ” ( Was ist Metaphysik? ) – 1929
- “ The Question Concerning Technology ” ( Die Frage nach der Technik ) – 1954
- “ The Origin of the Work of Art ” ( Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes ) – 1935
Martin Heidegger was a German philosopher who had a major influence on the history of contemporary philosophy . His thinking is known for combining elements of phenomenology and existentialism , and he introduced concepts such as “ Dasein ” (human existence), “ Temporality ,” “The Reality of Death” and “Authenticity.” Heidegger emphasized the importance of human existential understanding, especially in the context of the meaning of death, as well as its role in dealing with everyday tasks and technology. This philosopher played a central role in the development of 20th century philosophical thought and remains a source of inspiration and controversy in the world of philosophy .
What Are Martin Heidegger’s Main Contributions To Philosophy?
What Is Meant By The Concept Of “Dasein” In Heidegger’s Thought?
How Did Heidegger Influence Modern Philosophical Thought?
What Is Meant By “Epokē” In Heidegger’s Thought?
“Epokē” is a term Heidegger uses to describe the way we must suspend our judgments and prejudices about the world in order to achieve deeper understanding. This is an important concept in his thinking.
How Does Heidegger View Technology In His Thinking?
- “ The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger ” – Charles B. Guignon (1993)
- “ Heidegger: A Very Short Introduction ” – Michael Inwood (1995)
- “ Heidegger’s Topology: Being, Place, World ” – Jeff Malpas (2006)
- “ Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil ” – Rüdiger Safranski (1998)