Ideology & Ism


  • Bahasa Indonesia
  • English

What Is Monotheism?

Feelosofi –  Monotheism is a concept of thought in philosophy and religion that recognizes the existence of one God or single divine entity as the creator and ruler of the universe. This concept has long historical roots in various religious traditions, including Abrahamic religions such as Islam, Christianity and Judaism. In the philosophy of monotheism, God is considered an all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-good entity. This belief asserts that no other divine entity other than God has absolute power in governing the universe.

The philosophy of monotheism also often discusses the attributes of God, such as justice, love, wisdom, and His transcendent presence. This concept often forms the basis of ethics and morals in monotheistic religions, which leads to a strong view of good and bad and human moral responsibility towards God and others.

Apart from that, in the philosophy of monotheism, the relationship between humans and God is very important. Humans are considered creatures who have the freedom to choose, are responsible for their actions, and have the ability to communicate with God through prayer, worship, and meditation. The philosophy of monotheism provides a foundation for deep thinking about the meaning of life, the purpose of human existence, and how to achieve spiritual perfection through devotion to God.

Overall, the philosophy of monotheism is an important aspect in the history of human thought and religion, which understands the concept of a single God and its implications for the worldview, ethics , and human relationship with the divine.

History Of The Philosophy Of Monotheism

The history of the philosophy of monotheism includes the development and evolution of thinking about belief in one God or single divine entity. This is one of the concepts that has most influenced the development of religion and philosophy in various cultures and traditions. The history of the philosophy of monotheism can be found in three major religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, which are often referred to as Abrahamic religions.

Initially, in the history of monotheism, the Hebrews played a key role. The holy book of Judaism, namely the Bible, contains a strong monotheistic view, with belief in one God who created the universe. The history of Israel and books such as the Torah were an important part of the development of this monotheism.

Then, about two thousand years ago, Christianity emerged as an extension and transformation of Jewish monotheism. Belief in one God and the concept of the Trinity in Christianity are central to Christian theological thought. This was a significant change in monotheistic philosophy that integrated the teaching of Christ as the Messiah.

In addition, around the 7th century AD, the Islamic religion emerged in Arabia with the same strong belief in one God, taught by the Prophet Muhammad. The Koran is the main holy book in Islam and confirms monotheism as a core principle in the belief.

The history of the philosophy of monotheism has influenced the development of thought and culture throughout the world. It has become the cornerstone of ethics , morals, and outlook on life for billions of people around the world. Although rooted in the Abrahamic tradition, the concept of monotheism has also influenced the thinking of philosophers and theologians from various cultural backgrounds, forming the basis of their thinking about the universe, humans, and relationships with the divine.

Basic Concepts Of Monotheism Theology

The basic concept of monotheistic theology is the core belief in the existence of one God or single divine entity which includes important aspects in the understanding of monotheistic religions such as Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Some basic concepts of monotheistic theology include:

  • The existence of a single God : Monotheism theology recognizes that there is only one God who is almighty and created the universe. This belief asserts that there is no other divine entity equal or co-equal with God.
  • God’s Transcendence : Basic concepts of monotheistic theology often include the idea that God is an entity that is transcendent or beyond human understanding. God is not limited by time, space, or matter, and His existence is far beyond human understanding.
  • God’s Attributes : Monotheistic theology describes God with a series of attributes, including justice, love, wisdom, and absolute power. These attributes help humans to understand the nature and character of God.
  • Obedience and Devotion : The basic concept of monotheism theology also underlines the importance for humans to obey and worship a single God. This includes moral, ethical and behavioral aspects that are in accordance with God’s will.
  • Role of Prophets or Messengers : In some monotheistic religions, such as Islam, the theology of monotheism includes the belief that God sends His prophets or messengers to humans to provide His guidance and teachings.
  • Afterlife : Monotheistic theology often includes a belief in the afterlife, namely a life after death where humans will be judged based on their actions during life and receive rewards or punishments according to their goodness or evil.

These basic concepts of monotheistic theology form the basis of monotheistic religious teachings and provide direction for the spiritual and ethical life of its adherents. This belief has become the moral and philosophical basis for many cultures and societies around the world that follow monotheistic religions.

Comparison Of The Theology Of Monotheism With Polytheism

A comparison between the theologies of monotheism and polytheism reveals fundamental differences in the understanding of God or divine entities. Here are some key comparisons between the two concepts:

  1. Number of Gods or Gods :
    • Monotheism: In monotheism theology, there is only one single God who is all-powerful and encompasses all divine powers and existence. Monotheists believe that there is no other God besides Him.
    • Polytheism: In polytheism , there are many gods or divine entities that have a specific scope and role in the universe. These gods often had different characteristics and duties.
  2. Obedience and Worship :
    • Monotheism: Believers in monotheism have the obligation to submit and worship one single God. Obedience to God is the main principle in monotheistic religions.
    • Polytheism: In polytheism , believers can worship and pay homage to various gods according to their needs or desires. This often involved various rituals and ceremonies addressed to specific gods.
  3. Nature of God or Gods :
    • Monotheism: God in monotheistic theology is often defined by attributes such as all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-good. These qualities form the basis for understanding God’s character.
    • Polytheism: The gods in polytheism have different characteristics, and their traits can vary greatly. There are gods who represent certain aspects of life and the universe.
  4. Afterlife :
    • Monotheism: In monotheism, belief in an afterlife is often an important element in religious teachings. Humans are believed to be judged by God and receive rewards or punishments based on their actions during life.
    • Polytheism: In polytheism , views on the afterlife can vary depending on particular traditions and beliefs. Some polytheistic systems have a concept of life after death, while others may not.

These differences reflect different understandings of divine entities and how humans relate to them. Despite their differences, both monotheism and polytheism have played an important role in the history of human religious and cultural development.


The conclusion regarding monotheism is that this concept plays an important role in the history of religion and human thought. Monotheism recognizes the existence of one God or single divine entity who has absolute power over the universe. This concept is rooted in various religious and cultural traditions, with a particularly strong influence on Abrahamic religions such as Islam, Christianity, and Judaism.


What Is Monotheism?

Monotheism is a concept in religion that believes in the existence of one God or single divine entity who created and governs the universe. This is a core principle in monotheistic religions such as Islam, Christianity, and Judaism.

What Is The Difference Between Monotheism And Polytheism?

The main difference is that monotheism recognizes one single God, while polytheism believes in the existence of many gods or divine entities. In monotheism, God is single and all-powerful, whereas in polytheism , the gods have varying roles and characteristics.

How Does Monotheism Affect Ethics And Morals?

Monotheism often forms the basis of ethics and morals in religion. Belief in one God guides its adherents in living a life that is obedient, just, and full of love towards fellow humans. Moral principles such as justice, forgiveness, and devotion to God are often core values ​​in monotheism.

Who Are The Important Figures In The History Of Monotheism?

Important figures in monotheism include the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) in the three Abrahamic religions, the Prophet Moses in the Jewish religion, and the Prophet Isa (Jesus) in the Christian religion. In Islam, the Prophet Muhammad is the main figure.

How Does Monotheism Impact Human Worldview?

Monotheism creates a deep framework for viewing the purpose and meaning of human life. Belief in the afterlife and accountability to God directs monotheists to live a life that is meaningful, full of morality and devotion to God. It also influences the way humans interact with the universe and fellow humans, with a focus on reverence for a single divine existence.


  • “ The Concept of God: An Exploration of Contemporary Difficulties with the Attributes of God ” by William Lane Craig (2016)
  • “ God, Freedom, and Evil ” by Alvin Plantinga (1974)
  • “ The Abrahamic Faiths, Judaism, Christianity, Islam: Similarities and Contrasts ” by Ismail K. Poonawala (2011)
  • The Concept of God in the Philosophy of Averroes ” by Majid Fakhry (2003)
  • “ The Idea of ​​the Holy ” by Rudolf Otto (1917)

Video Recommendations

Raymond Kelvin Nando, "Monotheism," Feelosofi, 1 November 2023,
Raymond Kelvin Nando
Writer, Researcher, & Philosophy Enthusiast