Feelosofi – Pragmatism is a philosophical school or view that has its roots in American thought in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This school argues that the value of an idea or action must be assessed based on its practical benefits, namely the extent to which the idea or action is able to provide concrete results or solutions that solve problems in everyday life. The pragmatic view emphasizes the importance of the consequences and outcomes of an action or belief in determining the truth or value of that thing.
The pragmatic approach has its roots in the thinking of figures such as Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. They emphasize that truth is an evolving process, and useful beliefs are beliefs that have a positive impact on solving practical problems in life. Thus, pragmatism rejects absolute or dogmatic views in assessing truth, and prioritizes experimentation and adaptation as a way to find effective solutions.
In the context of philosophy , pragmatism also refers to the view that philosophical concepts or theories should be measured based on their usefulness in solving concrete problems, not simply their suitability to abstract theories or speculative thinking. This means that pragmatic thinking focuses more on practical application than theoretical precision, and often suggests judging philosophical theories based on the criterion of their effectiveness in solving concrete problems in everyday life.
Thus, pragmatism has made a significant contribution to the development of scientific methods and practical approaches in various scientific disciplines, as well as being the basis for modern thinking in various fields, including psychology, education, and management.
History Of The Development Of Pragmatism
The historical development of pragmatism refers to the evolution of this philosophical school over time. Pragmatism emerged in the late 19th century in the United States as a response to significant social and intellectual changes in American society at that time. Key figures in the history of pragmatism include Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Charles Sanders Peirce is considered the father of pragmatism, who first introduced the concept in the 1870s. Peirce emphasized the importance of the scientific method and experiment in the search for truth. William James, in his book “ The Principles of Psychology ” (1890), developed the idea of pragmatism further by prioritizing individual experience as the main focus.
John Dewey, a significant pragmatic thinker, expanded the pragmatic view into the field of education. Dewey emphasized an experimental approach to learning and promoted the idea that education should draw on practical experience and problem solving in everyday life. Pragmatism also played an important role in the development of functional psychology by figures such as John Dewey and James Rowland Angell.
Over time, pragmatism influenced various disciplines, including philosophy , psychology, education, and the social sciences. The influence of pragmatism also extends into the world of politics and law, where pragmatic approaches to addressing social and political problems are becoming increasingly important. In essence, the historical development of pragmatism reflects the crucial role of this school in shaping modern thinking and practical approaches in various fields, which remains relevant today. Pragmatism is a philosophical school that underlines the importance of linking theoretical thinking with practical application, and emphasizes that the value of an idea or theory should be measured based on its usefulness in solving concrete problems in everyday life. The history of the development of pragmatism also highlights the significant impact of this school in shaping modern intellectual discourse and contributing to the development of scientific methods and practical approaches in various scientific disciplines.
Pragmatist figures played a central role in the development and spread of this philosophical school. Charles Sanders Peirce, often considered the father of pragmatism, was an American logician and philosopher who first introduced the term “pragmatism.” Peirce emphasized the importance of the scientific method and critical thinking in the search for truth, and suggested that the truth value of an idea could be measured by its practical consequences.
William James, an influential figure in pragmatism, developed the concept of pragmatism further. In his work “ The Principles of Psychology ” (1890), he highlighted individual experience as the main focus and emphasized the importance of practical and functional aspects in the understanding of psychology and philosophy .
John Dewey, a monumental pragmatic thinker, expanded pragmatism into the fields of education and social philosophy . Dewey promoted an experimental approach to learning, considering education as a process that should be relevant to everyday life and promoting the concept of problem solving in education.
Apart from these main figures, pragmatism also received contributions from other thinkers such as George Herbert Mead in the field of social psychology and Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. in the legal field. These pragmatist figures not only influenced the development of philosophy , but also various scientific disciplines and social and political aspects in society.
Types Of Pragmatism
In this context, there are several types of pragmatism that reflect different approaches and emphases in pragmatic thinking. First, classical pragmatism, which is related to the thinking of Charles Sanders Peirce, focuses on the concept of scientific method and criteria for truth based on practical consequences. This pragmatism is more theoretical.
Later, instrumental pragmatism, associated with William James, emphasized the instrumental role of knowledge in achieving practical goals. Instrumental pragmatism emphasizes that beliefs or ideas accepted by individuals can be measured based on their usefulness in achieving desired outcomes.
Furthermore, experimental pragmatism, developed by John Dewey, emphasizes an experimental approach to problem solving and an emphasis on education centered on practical experience. This pragmatism encourages learning through action and direct experience in real-world situations.
Social pragmatism, associated with the thought of George Herbert Mead, explores the role of social interaction in the formation of individual understanding and identity. This pragmatism highlights the importance of communication and social interaction in the problem-solving process.
Finally, legal pragmatism, proposed by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., emphasizes legal judgment based on the practical consequences and social effects of a legal decision. This type of pragmatism views law as a tool to achieve broader social goals.
In conclusion, pragmatism is a philosophical school that emphasizes the importance of practical benefits in assessing truth, ideas, or actions. There are different types of pragmatism, including classical pragmatism, instrumental pragmatism, experimental pragmatism, social pragmatism, and legal pragmatism, each of which highlights specific aspects of this view. Pragmatism has made significant contributions to the development of modern thought and practical approaches across a wide range of disciplines, from philosophy to education, psychology, law, and society. The focus on experimentation, practical application and problem solving is a central feature of various types of pragmatism, which remains relevant in the context of social and scientific developments today.
What Is Pragmatism?
Pragmatism is a philosophical school that emphasizes that the value of an idea or action must be assessed based on its practical benefits in solving problems in everyday life. Pragmatism emphasizes practical consequences as the main criterion in assessing the truth or value of an idea.
Who Were The Important Figures In The Development Of Pragmatism?
Important figures in the development of pragmatism include Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. They play a key role in formulating and developing pragmatic views in various fields of science.
What Is The Difference Between Classical Pragmatism And Instrumental Pragmatism?
Classical pragmatism, associated with Peirce, emphasized the scientific method and criteria of truth based on practical consequences. Meanwhile, instrumental pragmatism, associated with William James, emphasizes the instrumental role of knowledge in achieving practical goals.
How Does Pragmatism Influence Education?
John Dewey played a key role in integrating pragmatism into education. The experimental pragmatism he promoted emphasized learning through action, practical experience, and problem solving in real contexts, changing the traditional educational paradigm.
How Has Pragmatism Influenced The Legal Field?
Legal pragmatism, as espoused by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. emphasizes legal judgments based on practical consequences and social effects. This has influenced the development of legal systems and the understanding of law as a tool for achieving broader social goals.
- The Pragmatism of CS Peirce by Cornelis de Waal (2018)
- Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking by William James (1907)
- The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America by Louis Menand (2001)
- Experience and Nature by John Dewey (1925)
- Pragmatism, A Reader by Louis Menand (1997)
- The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings by Charles S. Peirce (1998)
- Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature by Richard Rorty (1979)
- Pragmatism and Other Writings by William James (2000)
- The Pragmatic Philosophy of CS Peirce by Philip P. Wiener (1952)
- John Dewey and American Democracy by Robert B. Westbrook (1991)