Feelosofi – Skepticism is an intellectual approach based on doubt and criticism of claims or statements without sufficient evidence or a strong rational basis. In the context of epistemology, skepticism refers to the view that knowledge should be gained through careful investigation and verification, while claims or beliefs without a solid foundation should be questioned. This involves being open to the possibility that whatever is considered current knowledge may be questioned and revised in the light of stronger evidence or better argumentation.
Skepticism is not only a personal attitude towards knowledge, but also as a methodology applied in various fields of science and philosophy . Scientific skepticism, for example, is an approach in which scientists continually test and examine their theories and hypotheses, ready to overhaul or replace them if there is evidence to support them. This is a basic principle in the development of science.
Skepticism may also refer to philosophical skepticism, in which basic concepts such as truth, morality, and reality itself are placed under critical doubt. Philosophical skepticism asks deep questions about whether we can really know anything, and to what extent we can understand the world around us.
Historically, skepticism has appeared in various forms, including Pyrrhonian skepticism, which emphasizes that there is no certainty in human knowledge, as well as modern philosophical skepticism that emerged during the European Age of Enlightenment. Modern skepticism highlights the importance of the scientific method in approaching knowledge and avoiding assumptions without sufficient evidence.
In general, skepticism reflects the values of intellectual criticism, doubt about unprovable claims, and caution in accepting beliefs without solid foundations. This is an important aspect in developing deeper knowledge and understanding of the world around us.
History Of The Development Of Skepticism
The history of the development of skepticism includes various schools of thought that have roots from ancient times to modern thought. Skepticism first appeared in a form known as Pyrrhonian skepticism, named after the Greek philosopher Pyrrho in the 4th century BC. Pyrrho held the view that humans cannot achieve definite knowledge about anything, and therefore, we should avoid making firm claims about reality. He encouraged the acceptance of the attitude of ataraxia, that is, inner calm obtained through indifference to philosophical questions.
Furthermore, academic skepticism, developed by Carneades of Cyrene in the 2nd century BC, explores the concept that knowledge must be based on sound, defensible evidence. He advocates a more moderate understanding of skepticism, according to which one should suspend judgment until there is sufficient evidence. This idea influenced the future development of the scientific method.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, during the European Renaissance period, modern skepticism developed with the contributions of philosophers such as Michel de Montaigne and René Descartes. Montaigne questioned the ability of human reason to attain definite knowledge and highlighted the relative nature of individual beliefs. Meanwhile, Descartes adopted a skeptical approach to existing knowledge and tried to achieve absolute truth through the method of radical doubt, famous in the statement “Cogito, ergo sum” (I think, therefore I am).
This skepticism also influences the development of modern science. The principle of scientific skepticism is the foundation of the scientific method, where theories and hypotheses must be continuously examined, tested, and revised based on empirical evidence . Therefore, the historical development of skepticism reflects its important contributions in promoting critical thinking, evidence-based research methods, and a deep understanding of the nature of human knowledge and reality.
Figures Of Skepticism
Figures of skepticism play an important role in the history of philosophical and scientific thought. One of the key figures in the history of skepticism is Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360–270 BC), who was the founder of Pyrrhonian skepticism, an early school that emphasized the impossibility of achieving definite knowledge and taught that individuals should maintain a balanced mental attitude, or ataraxia, by suspending judgment. them to reality.
In the Roman period, figures such as Sextus Empiricus (c. 160-210 AD), a follower of Pyrrhonian skepticism, developed a complex system of skeptical thought. He emphasized the importance of suspended judgment in dealing with knowledge claims. The thoughts of Sextus Empiricus were very influential in the understanding of skepticism in the following centuries.
In the 2nd century BC, Carneades of Cyrene was one of the leading figures of academic skepticism, which proposed that knowledge should be based on solid evidence and should not make unprovable claims. This approach influenced the future development of scientific methods.
During the European Renaissance of the 16th century, Michel de Montaigne emerged as a philosopher who typified modern skepticism by exploring the relative nature of individual beliefs and doubts about the ability of human reason to attain certain knowledge. René Descartes also played an important role in the development of modern skepticism with his revolutionary method of seeking absolute truth through the method of radical doubt.
Types Of Skepticism
Some prominent types of skepticism include:
- Pyrrhonian Skepticism: A school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho of Elis, which taught that humans cannot attain definite knowledge. Pyrrhonian skepticism emphasizes the importance of maintaining a balanced mental attitude and suspending judgment regarding knowledge claims.
- Academic Skepticism: Endorsed by the philosophers of Plato’s Academy , this skepticism teaches that knowledge must be based on sound evidence and that knowledge claims should be avoided if adequate evidence is not available. Karneades of Cyrene was one of the leading figures of academic skepticism.
- Scientific Skepticism: This is the approach of skepticism that underlies the modern scientific method. Scientists use doubt about claims and theories to ensure that scientific knowledge continues to grow based on strong empirical evidence. Scientific skepticism is the basis for the development of science.
- Modern Philosophical Skepticism: Figures such as Michel de Montaigne and René Descartes , during the European Renaissance, emerged as thinkers of modern skepticism. Montaigne explored the relative nature of individual beliefs, while Descartes tried to achieve absolute truth through the method of radical doubt.
- Religious Skepticism: This type of skepticism emphasizes doubt about religious beliefs or religious belief. Individuals in this category may doubt religious claims and seek a more critical understanding of religious beliefs.
- Moral Skepticism: Involves doubting the beliefs and moral values held by society. Moral skepticism questions the sources of moral truth and raises questions about the relative relative nature of moral standards in different cultures and times.
Skepticism is a school of philosophical thought that has developed throughout history, encompassing various types, each of which highlights different aspects of doubt and criticism of knowledge and beliefs. Starting from Pyrrhonian skepticism which emphasizes the impossibility of achieving definite knowledge, to academic skepticism which encourages knowledge based on solid evidence, scientific skepticism which is the basis of the scientific method, modern philosophical skepticism which explores the relative nature of individual beliefs, to religious and moral skepticism which doubts religious beliefs and values. -moral values.
What these various types of skepticism have in common is a focus on critical thinking, testing claims, and the pursuit of stronger evidence. Skepticism has played an important role in the development of the scientific method, the understanding of the limits of human knowledge, and the importance of maintaining intellectual doubt in the face of claims and beliefs. Through its various forms, skepticism has shaped philosophical and scientific thinking, reminding us of the complexity and relative nature of human knowledge, and encouraging us to always seek a deeper understanding of the world around us.
What Is Skepticism?
Skepticism is an intellectual approach based on doubt and criticism of claims or beliefs without sufficient evidence or a strong rational basis. This involves being open to the possibility that knowledge must be gained through careful investigation and verification.
What Is The Difference Between Pyrrhonian Skepticism And Academic Skepticism?
Pyrrhonian skepticism, founded by Pyrrho of Elis, emphasized the impossibility of achieving definite knowledge and encouraged maintaining a balanced mental attitude. While academic skepticism, pioneered by Karneades of Cyrene, emphasizes that knowledge should be based on solid evidence and knowledge claims should be avoided if adequate evidence is not available.
How Does Skepticism Affect Science?
Scientific skepticism forms the basis of the modern scientific method, in which theories and hypotheses must be constantly examined and tested based on empirical evidence . It plays an important role in the development of accurate and trustworthy scientific knowledge.
What Impact Does Skepticism Have On Religious And Moral Beliefs?
Religious and moral skepticism involves doubting religious beliefs or moral values held by society. This raises questions about the sources of moral truth and the relative nature of moral standards in different cultures and times.
Does Skepticism Prohibit Personal Belief?
Skepticism does not prohibit personal beliefs, but encourages individuals to question their beliefs and seek solid evidence or a strong rational basis for their beliefs. It is an approach that values critical thinking and deep evaluation of personal beliefs.
- “Outlines of Scepticism” oleh Sextus Empiricus (2000)
- “The Skeptic Way: Sextus Empiricus’s Outlines of Pyrrhonism” oleh Benson Mates (1996)
- “Skepticism and the Veil of Perception” oleh Michael Huemer (2001)
- “Descartes’s Method of Doubt” oleh Janet Broughton (2002)
- “Skepticism: A Contemporary Reader” (2007) disunting oleh Keith DeRose dan Ted A. Warfield